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This study aimed to develop a specific Mathematical Content Knowledge (MCK) test focused on multiplication for pre-service mathematics teachers in Indonesia and Türkiye. No assessment tool exists to measure MCK related to multiplication among pre-service mathematics teachers. We used convenience sampling to obtain data from third- and fourth-year pre-service teachers in Indonesian and Turkish mathematics teacher education programs. The test items were administered to 423 Indonesian pre-service mathematics teachers and 413 Turkish pre-service mathematics teachers, and their responses were analyzed using factor analysis. The MCK test was found to be reliable, with 18 items that were grouped into four components: procedural knowledge of multiplication (C1), understanding of multiple representations (C2), conceptual knowledge of multiplication (C3), and anticipating students' thinking (C4). The study results suggest that a valid MCK test helps evaluate multiplication in these four components. Additionally, the study findings indicate that Indonesian pre-service teachers score higher in the C1 and C4 categories, while Turkish pre-service teachers score higher in the C2 and C3 categories.


Comparative Studies Indonesia Mathematical Content Knowledge Test Multiplication Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers Türkiye

Article Details

How to Cite
Novikasari, I., & Dede, Y. (2024). Toward proficiency: Developing a multiplication mathematical content knowledge test for pre-service mathematics teachers in Indonesia and Türkiye. Journal on Mathematics Education, 15(1), 115–130.


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