Main Article Content


One of the Education for Sustainable Development Goals is to provide equitable and inclusive access to quality education for all. However, some children with special needs, particularly slow learners, have yet to be able to enjoy inclusive and high-quality learning services. This research aims to enhance slow learners' competence by implementing the Realistic Mathematics Education Approach. It is descriptive qualitative research, with data collection techniques including focus group discussion, interview, and learning observation. The analysis involved comparing the principles of Realistic Mathematics Education in theory with those applied by teachers, as well as the learning approach used by teachers with those required by slow learners. The findings indicate that while some teachers have implemented learning based on the principles of Realistic Mathematics Education for all students, there needs to be more focus on interventions specifically tailored to the needs of slow learners. Furthermore, teachers still need to fully understand the services required by slow learners based on their unique characteristics. The implementation of Realistic Mathematics Education to meet the learning needs of slow learners in mathematics has primarily focused on activity and interactivity principles without emphasis on the understanding of concepts to enhance their competence.


Junior High School Mathematics Realistic Mathematics Education RME Principles Slow Learners

Article Details

How to Cite
Listiawati, N., Sabon, S. S., Siswantari, Subijanto, Wibowo, S., Zulkardi, & Riyanto, B. (2023). Analysis of implementing Realistic Mathematics Education principles to enhance mathematics competence of slow learner students. Journal on Mathematics Education, 14(4), 683–700.


  1. Aprinastuti, C., Anggadewi, B. E. T., Suharno, R., & Wiyantari, W. (2020). Development of mathematics manipulative for slow learner and dyscalculia student in elementary school by using Montessori’s characteristic. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1663(1), 012065.
  2. Ariyanti, H. P. (2016). Pengaruh Pembelajaran Matematika Realistik terhadap Kemampuan Matematis Siswa (Ditinjau dari Kemampuan Representasi dan Komunikasi). Buana Matematika-Jurnal Ilmiah Matematika dan Pendidikan Matematika, 6(2).
  3. Arnellis, A., Fauzan, A., Arnawa, I. M., & Yerizon, Y. (2020). The Effect of Realistic Mathematics Education Approach Oriented Higher Order Thinking Skills to Achievements’ Calculus. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1554(1), 012033.
  4. Ashari, N. W., & Salwah. (2021). Bringing Real Analysis Subject Into Real Life: an Experimental Research for Prospective Teacher of Mathematics Study Program Using Realistic Mathematics Education. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1752(1), 012010.
  5. Aunio, P., Korhonen, J., Ragpot, L., Törmänen, M., & Henning, E. (2021). An early numeracy intervention for first-graders at risk for mathematical learning difficulties. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 55, 252–262.
  6. Avvisati, F., Echazarra, A., Givord, P., & Schwabe, M. (2019). Indonesia - Country Note - PISA 2018 Results. In Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) Result from PISA 2018 (pp. 1–10). OECD.
  7. Baglio, G., Blasi, V., Sangiuliano Intra, F., Castelli, I., Massaro, D., Baglio, F., Valle, A., Zanette, M., & Marchetti, A. (2016). Social Competence in Children with Borderline Intellectual Functioning: Delayed Development of Theory of Mind Across All Complexity Levels. Frontiers in Psychology, 7.
  8. Barnes, H. (2005). The theory of Realistic Mathematics Education as a theoretical framework for teaching low attainers in mathematics. Pythagoras, 0(61).
  9. Bonner, C., Tuckerman, J., Kaufman, J., Costa, D., Durrheim, D. N., Trevena, L., Thomas, S., & Danchin, M. (2021). Comparing inductive and deductive analysis techniques to understand health service implementation problems: a case study of childhood vaccination barriers. Implementation Science Communications, 2(1).
  10. Bonotto, C. (2007). How to Replace Word Problems with Activities of Realistic Mathematical Modelling. In Modelling and Applications in Mathematics Education (pp. 185–192). Springer US.
  11. Borah, R. R. (2013). Slow Learners: Role of Teachers and Guardians in Honing their Hidden Skills. International Journal of Educational Planning & Administration, 3(2), 139–143.
  12. Cibulskaitė, N., & Jurkėnaitė, G. (2014). Mathematics learning outcomes of IX–X Grades Students are Associated with the Characteristics of Educational Environment. Pedagogika, 114(2), 85–95.
  13. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education (6th ed.). Routledge.
  14. Deeksha, & Kaur, N. (2016). Mathematical Skills of Students with and without Learning Disabilities: An analysis. Learning Community-An International Journal of Educational and Social Development, 7(1), 21.
  15. Domínguez-González, R., & Delgado-Martín, L. (2022). Arousing Early Strategic Thinking about SDGs with Real Mathematics Problems. Mathematics, 10(9), 1446.
  16. Erickson, M. T. (1982). Child Psychopathology: Behaviour Disorders and Developmental Disabilities. Prentice Hall, Inc.
  17. Fauzana, R., Dahlan, J., & Jupri, A. (2020). The influence of realistic mathematics education (RME) approach in enhancing students’ mathematical literacy skills. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1521(3), 032052.
  18. Fauziah, A., Putri, R. I. I., Zulkardi, Z., & Somakim, S. (2020). Developing pmri learning environment through lesson study for pre-service primary school teacher. Journal on Mathematics Education, 11(2), 193–208.
  19. Fritz, A., Haase, V. G., & Räsänen, P. (2019). Introduction. In International Handbook of Mathematical Learning Difficulties (pp. 1–6). Springer International Publishing.
  20. García, M. M., & Toledo, L. D. (2020). Los elementos de un sistema educacional inclusivo desde la perspectiva de los profesores. Psicologia Escolar e Educacional, 24.
  21. Gerdes, P. (1996). Ethnomathematics and Mathematics Education. In A. J. Bishop, K. Clements, C. Keitel, J. Kilpatrick, & C. Laborde (Eds.), International Handbook of Mathematics Education (Vol. 4, pp. 909–943). Springer Netherlands.
  22. Gravemeijer, K. (1994). Educational Development and Developmental Research in Mathematics Education. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 25(5), 443–471.
  23. Harahap, I. H., & Sari, D. N. (2022). Application of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) To Improve The Students’ Mathematical Communication Ability. Edunesia: Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan, 4(2), 598–606.
  24. Hasibuan, H. Y., Santosa, C. A. H. F., & Syamsuri, S. (2022). Slow learners’ performance in solving mathematical problems in the inclusive classroom. Jurnal Elemen, 8(2), 449–465.
  25. Heuvel-Panhuizen, M. Van den, & Drijvers, P. (2020). Realistic Mathematics Education. In Encyclopedia of Mathematics Education (pp. 713–717). Springer, Cham.
  26. Kaznowski, K. (2004). Slow Learners: Are Educators Leaving Them Behind? NASSP Bulletin, 88(641), 31–45.
  27. Khaira, U., & Herman, T. (2020). Assessment processes for slow learners in mathematics learning. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1521(3), 032097.
  28. Kruiper, S. M. A., Leenknecht, M. J. M., & Slof, B. (2022). Using scaffolding strategies to improve formative assessment practice in higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 47(3), 458–476.
  29. Kumari, A., & Kataria, A. (2022). Effectiveness of Academic Intervention on Learning of Environmental Science among Slow Learners. Asia Pacific Journal of Educators and Education, 37(2), 147–166.
  30. Lesnussa, Y. A. (2019). Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) Provides Great Benefits for Students in Indonesia. Jurnal Aplikasi Multidisiplinari Filsafat dan Sains (JAMFAS), 1(1), 001–006.
  31. Manikmaya, P., & Prahmana, R. C. I. (2021). Single subject research: Pembelajaran perbandingan senilai dan berbalik nilai berpendekatan contextual teaching and learning untuk siswa slow learner. Journal of Honai Math, 4(1), 35–48.
  32. Ministry of National Education. (2009). Pendidikan Inklusif bagi Peserta Didik yang Memiliki Kelainan dan Memiliki Kecerdasan dan/atau Bakat Istimewa. In Republic Indonesia Ministry of National Education Regulation Number 70 0f 2009. Ministry of National Education.
  33. Mitari, O., & Zulkardi, Z. (2019). PISA-like problems on students’ mathematical literacy using the context of Jakabaring sport city. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1315(1), 012014.
  34. Munje, R., Buwa, O. B., & Ahire, R. (2021). On Identifying Advanced, Average and Slow Learners: Case Study. Journal of Engineering Education Transformations, 34(0), 417–424.
  35. Murdiyanto, T., Wijayanti, D. A., & Sovia, A. (2023). Identify Slow Learners in Math: Case Study in Rural Schools. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (IJIM), 17(06), 45–61.
  36. Ng, S. W., & Kwan, Y. W. (2020). Inclusive Education Teachers—Strategies of Working Collaboratively With Parents of Children With Special Educational Needs in Macau. International Journal of Educational Reform, 29(2), 191–207.
  37. Offenholley, K. H. (2012). A Discourse Analysis of the Online Mathematics Classroom. American Journal of Distance Education, 26(4), 236–248.
  38. OHCHR. (2020). Policy Guidelines for Inclusive Sustainable Development Goals : FOUNDATIONS: Vol. Advance Version. United Nations.
  39. Palinussa, A. L., Molle, J. S., & Gaspersz, M. (2021a). Realistic mathematics education: Mathematical reasoning and communication skills in rural contexts. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE), 10(2), 522.
  40. Papadakis, S., Kalogiannakis, M., & Zaranis, N. (2017). Improving Mathematics Teaching in Kindergarten with Realistic Mathematical Education. Early Childhood Education Journal, 45(3), 369–378.
  41. Putranto, S., & Marsigit, M. (2018). Is it Effective using Peer Tutoring with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach to Improve Slow Learners’ Mathematics Attitudes? International Journal on Emerging Mathematics Education, 2(2), 179.
  42. Putri, R. I. I., Zulkardi, & Riskanita, A. D. (2022). Students’ problem-solving ability in solving algebra tasks using the context of Palembang. Journal on Mathematics Education, 13(3), 549–564.
  43. Rajkumar, R., & Hema, G. (2017). Teaching Slow Learners in Mathematics: Innovative Technologies and Strategies. Conference: International Conference on Education for Slow Learners.
  44. Reinke, L. T., & Casto, A. R. (2022). Motivators or conceptual foundation? Investigating the development of teachers’ conceptions of contextual problems. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 34(1), 113–137.
  45. Riyanto, B., & Siroj, R. A. (2011). Meningkatkan kemampuan penalaran dan prestasi matematika dengan pendekatan konstruktivisme pada siswa sekolah menengah atas.
  46. Riyanto, B., Zulkardi, Z., Putri, R. I. I., & Darmawijoyo, D. (2019). Senior high school mathematics learning through mathematics modeling approach. Journal on Mathematics Education, 10(3), 425–444.
  47. Setyawan, F., Andriyani, Handayani, T. K., Ratih, K., Sutopo, A., Rusli, T. I., & Alfiany, N. R. (2021). Rigorous Thinking in Mathematics Modelling for Slow Learners. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1720(1), 012005.
  48. Shah, D. P., Jagtap, N. M., Shah, S. S., & Nimkar, A. V. (2020). Spaced Repetition for Slow Learners. 2020 IEEE Bombay Section Signature Conference (IBSSC), 146–151.
  49. Sintawati, M., Sukma, H. H., & Marini, A. (2022). Mathematics pedagogical knowledge for slow learners teaching. AIP Conference Proceedings, 020061.
  50. Sovia, A., & Herman, T. (2020). Gesture of slow learner student in mathematical Communication. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1464(1), 012046.
  51. Trisnawati, T., Pratiwi, R., & Waziana, W. (2018). The effect of realistic mathematics education on student’s mathematical communication ability. Malikussaleh Journal of Mathematics Learning (MJML), 1(1), 31.
  52. Van Vo, D., & Csapó, B. (2022). Exploring students’ science motivation across grade levels and the role of inductive reasoning in science motivation. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 37(3), 807–829.
  53. Vattøy, K.-D., & Gamlem, S. M. (2023). Students’ experiences of peer feedback practices as related to awareness raising of learning goals, self-monitoring, self-efficacy, anxiety, and enjoyment in teaching EFL and mathematics. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 1–15.
  54. Wanabuliandari, S., Ardianti, S. D., Gunarhadi, G., & Rejekiningsih, T. (2021). Study Analysis of Confidence Level on Slow Learner Students. International Journal of Elementary Education, 5(4), 584.
  55. Windsor, S., Maxwell, G., & Antonsen, Y. (2022). Incorporating sustainable development and inclusive education in teacher education for the Arctic. Polar Geography, 45(4), 246–259.
  56. Yin, R. K. (2016). Qualitative Research from Start to Finish (2nd ed.). Guilford Press.
  57. Zentall, S. S., & Ferkis, M. A. (1993). Mathematical Problem Solving for Youth with ADHD, with and without Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 16(1), 6–18.
  58. Zulkardi. (2022). Peran Konteks PMRI untuk “Semua Siswa” Belajar Matematika Pasca Pandemik.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>